responsabile sezioneCristina Santinelli

Adalberto Coltelluccio Contraddizione e paradosso in Hegel
In this paper, I argue that Hegel‟s dialectic accepts true contradictions. His logic violates the Aristotelian principle of contradiction. However, contradictions are not irreducible and do not generate paradoxes, because they are always resolved. Therefore, Hegelian dialectic cannot be defined as aporetic, as it lacks the connection between contradiction and recursive self-reference. Hegel uses an original strategy in order to get over the contradiction, which is neither the Scholastic „reductio‟ nor the logical „parameterization‟. It is conceived as an opposite „overwhelming‟ another opposite.

Nadia Pucci Noterella sul daimonion, il luogo della scelta morale
In the following essay we intend to demonstrate that between the passages of Apology and those of Phaedrus, both containing reference to the ―divination of the demonic sign‖, there is a deeper connection, comparable to an ―upside-down mirror‖. The daimonion, who does not intervene in Apology and allows Socrates to fullfil his moral destiny, assumes a significance, in Phaedrus, which is similar to the one in Apology, but nevertheless confers a sense of discontinuity to the ―time of the moral choice‖, assimilating such time to the analysis of the instant carried out by Plato in Parmenides.

Raffaele Carbonei Considerazioni sul progetto della science de l’homme nella Recherche de la vérité di Nicolas Malebranche
The malebranchean project on science of man intends to investigate the mind in itself, the mind-body relation, the relationship between the mind and God. We emphasize that the science of man is a special knowledge which takes its place between evidence and likelihood, metaphysics and experience. The science of man needs a large knowledge and in particular it concerns the basic structure of mind and the nature of body. According to Malebranche these enquiries are good if we consider the theological and historical background of man: man is placed between the primary perfection of Adam and his own perfect condition in the celestial Jerusalem. In short, we can understand the structure of the mind and the mind-body relationship, therefore the perceptions and affections mechanism, only in light of the historical background of the degenerate state of mankind. In other words, the possibility of a science of man consists of its capacity to deal with the psychological and empirical data without clinging to them.

Alessandro Carlucci Gramsci and Saussure: Similarities and Possible Links
Few books from the first half of the twentieth century have exerted the same long-lasting, interdisciplinary influence as Antonio Gramsci‘s Prison Notebooks and Ferdinand De Saussure‘s Course in General Linguistics. The former is the work of a political leader and philosopher who is now widely appreciated by scholars in the humanities and social sciences, including several scholars in language studies; while the latter is the work of a linguist who, at least as the initiator of linguistic structuralism, has been regarded as a fundamental author and source of inspiration by many anthropologists, sociologists, social theorists, and political philosophers. Both the Course and the Notebooks were published after the authors‘ deaths. The first edition of the Course in General Linguistics was published in 1916. Are there any links between the ideas expressed in this book and those of Gramsci, who wrote his Prison Notebooks between 1929 and 1935? Although no documentary evidence exists confirming that Gramsci read the Course, some passages from his writings bear striking resemblances to the contents of Saussure‘s posthumous work. I shall argue that events in Gramsci‘s life can be held responsible for these resemblances. Between 1911 and 1926, he studied linguistics at Turin University and came into contact with early Soviet cultural life, residing in Russia twice in the early 1920s. Soviet linguists were then discussing the ideas contained in the Course, and post-revolutionary cultural life was, on the whole, quite receptive towards these ideas. Therefore, it is likely that they became part of the cultural milieu which influenced the development of Gramsci‘s thought.

Andrea Aguti, La filosofia delle religioni. Introduzione tematica e rassegna dei principali modelli contemporanei
In this paper, I offer an introduction to the philosophy of religion as autonomous discipline, with special regard to the contemporary age. After explaining the conceptual distinction between “philosophy of religion” and “philosophy of religions”, I offer some remarks about the origins of the philosophy of religion in the history of Western thought and the importance of phenomenological approach to religion in order to show the autonomy of the philosophy of religion. A further task of the paper is to show the variety of types of the philosophy of religion in the twentieth century and their methodological particularity. Finally, I analyze the problem of religious pluralism in relation to the christian theology.

Lorenzo Vinciguerra, L'antropologia di Spinoza
The necessity, the immanence and the antifinalism of substance are the instruments of a radical anthropological thought in Spinoza, where the theological anthropomorphism appears to be ruled by a finalist anthropocentrism. The theological reform goes together with a anthropological reform, which denounces three native illusions (belief in freedom, in a substantial self and in the power of a free will). In a positive way, man, defined by Spinoza as individuum is to be considered as the effect of a triple natural relation: to the substance, to the universe and to other men (multitudo). The desire, that is the very essence of man, is here conceived as a reaction to these three fundamental and modal relations.

Italo Cubeddu, Per leggere le Regulae ad directionem ingenii,
In his Regulae Descartes describes a technique of symbolic abstraction, one which anticipates the Kantian theory of schematism.

Veronica Nicusanti, L’opera di Arnold Geulincx (1624-1669) Tra cartesianismo e occasionalismo
The article introduces Arnold Geulincx’ works reconstructing their derivation from the cartesian nova philosophia and pointing out some theoretical aspects they share with Spinoza’s thought. First of all the text examines the most widely known result of Geulincx’ elaboration of cartesianism, that is his occasionalistic doctrine of the finite beings’ causality, outlining its original features and pointing out one of the possible sources it comes from. Then the article dwells upon the Geulincx’ system section propaedeutic to his occasionalistic theory, that is his peculiar confutation of the scholastic physics and metaphysics, first effect of his youthful assimilation of Descartes’ works. Through a detailed analysis of the most significant loci of Geulincx’ Metaphysica Peripatetica, the text introduces in particular his refutation of scholastic ontology, showing the confutation of the concepts of ens, of modus entis and of trascendentalia the author develops. The analysis points out the affinities between this refutation and the one that Spinoza works out in his Cogitata Metaphysica and, at least, it underlines the assonances between Spinoza’s and Geulincx’ original ontology, at the same time as their clean differences.

Alessandro Carlucci, L’influenza di Lenin su Gramsci: per uno studio degli aspetti glottopolitici
This article considers Lenin’s position regarding policies best suited to dealing with cultural and linguistic plurality. His position is compared with the opinions of those that Antonio Gramsci had on the same subject. Lenin expressed views on the rights of linguistic minorities characterized by democratic sensibilities quite advanced by the standards of his times. He unambiguously stated the necessity for the State power to prevent linguistic diversity from being repressed within public communication and education. If providing evidence of Lenin's influence on Gramsci can represent a crucial point in asserting the totalitarian world-view of the latter, this point needs to be carefully assessed when referred to the conceptualization of issues pertaining to language policy and planning. Contrary to what happens in other domains (the theory of the Revolutionary Party and the State, most notably), here Lenin's theoretical influence fits quite problematically into the sort of syllogism by which Gramsci, as a Leninist, would necessarily have favored the displacement of plurality.

Cecilia Muratori, Il Dio Senza-Fondo. Storia dell’evoluzione del concetto di Ungrund negli scritti di Jakob Böhme
No other concept has more often been used to represent the philosophical thought of Jakob Böhme than that of Ungrund, despite the fact that it appears relatively late in his writings: the word Ungrund was employed for the first time in the Forty Questions (Vierzig Fragen), written in 1620, eight years after Böhme’s first book, Aurora or Morgenröte im Aufgang, and only four years before his death.
As it literally means Bottom-less, or Without-Ground, the word Ungrund is used to describe the nature of the Divinity in the most radical way, that is ripping from it every possible image or representation, and, as a final step, leaving it without a ground to sustain itself.
I propose to trace an evolution of both the concept and the term Ungrund, from Böhme’s early works to those written after 1620, with the aim of showing that the concept which first appears in the Forty Questions is not entirely a new one: although Böhme repeatedly changes his terminology in attempting to describe the divine mysteries, certain aspects of his approach nevertheless remain constant throughout this process.
First, it’s possible to point out that already in Aurora Böhme tries to conceive the Divine on different levels (levels of depth). The Holy Trinity, far from being considered as the only possible representation of the Divinity, is defined as a form of it which has a beginning (or
‘birth’), proceeding from a divine depth, or abyss: it is this abyss that Böhme will later call Ungrund.
Following the stages of this evolution will show, on the one hand, the reason for the late appearance of the term Ungrund, and on the other the shades of meaning which converge in it. At the same time, Böhme’s constant and developing attempt to consider the Divinity as a bottomless Abyss offers an interesting parallel with Meister Eckhart’s conception of the Divine as a motionless Nothing.

Giuseppa Saccaro Del Buffa,Attributi teologici e attributi spinoziani
There has always been little agreement among Spinoza scholars on how to interpret the concept of attribute, essential though it is for a full understanding of the metaphysics of being. Through an analysis of Spinoza's early works, this paper explains how the issue of attribute progressively took shape and how the philosopher's new thinking broke away from the metaphysics of monotheistic theological traditions, which he challenged and even repudiated. Only gradually and through a difficult, tormented process did Spinoza move from an original conception of attributes as individual substances to that of a single substance which «expresses itself» through infinite attributes. In the same process one can also see an emerging awareness of the relation between the knowledge of being and the language expressing such knowledge. This awareness underpins further linguistic-conceptual refinement, which is fundamental for an understanding of Spinoza's masterpiece

Pina Totaro, Le traduzioni italiane del Tractatus theologico-politicus di Spinoza. A proposito di una nuova traduzione
This paper contains comments on the Author's translation of Spinoza's Tractatus theologico-politicus (Bibliopolis). It is part of a national project for the publication of a new edition of Spinoza's Works, originally planned by E. Giancotti and currently coordinated by F. Mignini. Main features and criteria characterizing Italian translations of the Tractatus (starting from Carlo Sarchi's in 1875) are examined; referring to specific examples, it is argued that there cannot be an a priori ideal criterion for translation. The translation has to remain faithful to the letter of the text without jeopardizing its intelligibility. Translators must therefore avoid too literal styles which would result in artificial language and compromised communication. This is particularly true of Spinoza's Tractatus, which remains fully up-to-date in political and exegetic context.

Elisa Basili, La solitudo in Spinoza
The following article aims to address the meaning of the term solitudo
as used by Spinoza in his works and theory. The manner in which this intense and diverse word is used in various forms by the Dutch philosopher is considered (selected passages from Political Treatise and Ethics).The hypothesis which is therefore disproved is that what binds the various incursions of the term solitudo is the author's desire to depict a negative condition of human existence, an “anti-condition”, as it were. Where an individual, despite being physically present in society, is not entirely part of society nor fully partakes in society, be it due to corrupt political powers or be it due to a personal choice, there solitudo, war, an incomplete existence – the useless distribution of power, exist. Hence, a viable, however daring, approach and comparison is put forth between this manner of incomplete human existence and the existence of the mass-individual, of the apolitical individual, described by many philosophers and sociologists as the typical member of modern contemporary society, a society that has often been fashioned as the architect of the apolitical, of individualism and of atomism as well as the nurturer of modern concrete forms of slavery

Marco Vanzulli, La soglia invalicabile della politica. Su Machiavelli e Vico
Presented on the occasion of the seminar Immaginazione e contingenza. Seminario su Machiavelli, which was organized within the activities of the Dottorato di Ricerca in Antropologia Filosofica e Fondamenti delle Scienze at the Institute of Philosophy of Urbino University (14th October 2004), this text aims to show the problematical character of the attempt to determine a political practice in Machiavelli and in Vico on the ground of their own different scientific theories. If we suppose the bene civile as one of the fundamental aims of their knowledge, politics appear at the same time as a land known and inviolate, irremediably contingent. As to this problem, the new science of Vico is obliged to take up Machiavelli's work. It appears then the question: is the subject of the bene civile – as we find it in Machiavelli and in Vico –  in a position to think politics as new, beyond the model of Roman history?

Alessandro Marini, L'esserci dell'altro in Essere e Tempo, L'alterità nell'analitica esistenziale di Martin Heidegger
This contribution tries to reconstruct Heidegger's reflection about alterity problem in Sein und Zeit and in the years from 1919 until 1928. The Mitsein doesn't represent the only existential structure that makes the Dasein able to exist with others. Heidegger speaks also about Fürsorge and, in Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Logik. Im Ausgang von Leibniz (1928), he suggests a relationship between the ‘originary temporality' of the Dasein and the other as ‘you'. So, the alterity problem has an ontological significance because the Dasein and the other are not two metaphysical subjects.

Simona Coviello, Lukács e Heidegger: due diverse costruzioni ontologiche,
This research suggests to examine and evaluate the two contrasting ontological positions of Heidegger and Lukács. These two great philosophers of the twentieth century each in their own way sought to interpret and respond to the anguish of modern society through ontological speculation. It is interesting to note that both these thinkers analyse man's role in the world by developing arguments that are complete opposites. Heidegger contemplates man's role in his singleness and individuality while Lukács takes man in his totality as a species. Beginning with these opposing precepts Heidegger and Lukács construct two ontological systems that are specular images of each other.

Fabio Frosini, L'immanenza nei Quaderni del carcere di Antonio Gramsci
In a very original manner within the realm of Marxist thought, Antonio Gramsci uses the concept of immanency, in his Quaderni del carcere (Prison notebooks), with systematic significance as he locates in this concept the specificity of the Marxist position regarding philosophy. This essay aims at the analysis of the uses of this concept, that might be reduced to three main lines of development corresponding to three different meanings more or less well established in the philosophical tradition. In its first meaning, very frequently used ever since Gramsci's youth writings, immanency is a metaphysical horizon of inherence of cause to effect, and thus a generic denial of the transcendence of the divine and an assertion of the autonomy of the historical world. In a second sense, the term immanency appears in the Notebooks in close connection to the notion of teleology, that is, as a limitation of the constitutive use of reason to the phenomenic sphere and, in the particular context of historical knowledge, as a critical barrier to any philosophy of history based on the notion of prediction. Thirdly, the notion of immanency emerges in the Notebooks as a critical tool against ideology and as a synonym of worldliness, both of them made possible thanks to the principle of unity of theory and praxis.In this paper the Notebooks have been approached genetically so that it can be detected the residual character of the first meaning, the dominance of the second during the first stage of the work (1930) and the pre-eminence of the third in a second stage (1932), when also the relations between immanency and teleology are critically reassessed in the light of the idea of immanency as criticism of any form of metaphysics.It is possible thus to observe two fundamental guidelines in Gramsci's thought. The first one is the necessity of thinking events in their absolute singularity, and in the Notebooks this means that the individual is critically assumed as the starting point both of philosophy of praxis and of political practice. The second one consists in a continued reflection about prediction, a notion that had already been amply criticised by Benedetto Croce, and that in the Notebooks finds the room for critical reformulation through the assimilation of necessity to regularity and uniformity.

Vittorio Morfino, L'oggetto del terzo genere di conoscenza in Spinoza
Presented on the occasion of the Seminar Spinoza: potenza e libertà, which was organized within the activities of the Dottorato di ricerca in Antropologia filosofica e fondamenti delle scienze at the Institute of Philosophy of Urbino University (4th March 2004), this text sketches some of the arguments which figure in the more detailed essay La scienza delle connexiones singulares, published in AA.VV., Sulla scienza intuitiva in Spinoza. Ontologia, politica, estetica, V. Morfino e F. Del Lucchese eds., Ghibli, Milano, 2003. The main thesis which the Author here supports is that Spinoza's intuitive knowledge - whose subject admits of many non-univocal interpretations - can be identified with the knowledge of the essence and properties of the political body.

Lucia Saudelli, Ippolito Romano e la Refutatio di Eraclito
One of the most complete accounts on Heraclitus that the ancient world has left us is Hippolytus'. The Roman writer interprets the Heraclitean doctrine of the unity and unification of all opposites of reality as the identification of the persons of the Father and Son in the Christian conception of God. In his Refutatio omnium haeresium Hippolytus quotes 18 of Heraclitus' fragments, meticulously chosen from the others, to show that the most dangerous heresy of his time, the 'monarchism' of Noetus from Smirnes, derives from Heraclitus' theory of the 'One', and to demonstrate that his personal enemy, the immoral and corrupt bishop Callistus, was an epigone of this heretical doctrine. This study translates for the first time in Italian Hippolytus' Greek text and analyses the particular interpretation of Heraclitus given by the Christian author who intends to reach his polemical target by the strategic use of the Greek sage's doctrine, and wants to refute the heresy defending the Trinitarian and Christological orthodoxy of the Roman Church. However, in this attempt, one can find some Gnostic elements.

Milena Marzialetti, La complessità del pensiero cartesiano:platonismo e creazionismo
The search for truth is not an analytic procedure that has no painful consequences for Descartes' thought. Evidence, which is the only element that is itself able to produce clarity and distinction is indissolubly connected to the idea of a Mighty God. The possibility to perform scientific activities is linked to the necessity of establishing a parallelism between clear and distinct ideas (res in my mind) and their concrete existence in the world. This idea requires the existence of a true God, capable to guarantee the correspondence between the two res (idea and real thing) and to make a geometrized physics possible. But the divine Mighty brings with itself the possibility to give life to dialectical questioning and thus, to what is impossible to man. Two aspects are lively present in the philosophy of Descartes: Plato's perspective, which makes the essence a res, and the perspective of creationism, which makes the essence a created res. These two perspectives do not eliminate each other, but one reinforces the other in the conviction that human knowledge can look at the unlimited power of God without fearing it

Riccardo Caporali, Un moderno alla maniera degli antichi Suillo Spinoza di Leo Strauss
The considerations outlined below synthetically revolve around the three essential points relevant to the context and to the motivations (Motiven) of young Strauss's interest in Spinoza as well as to the extent and the depth of his interpretative contributions, to the probable influences and to the non-impossible retroactivities the author being interpreted arises in the reflection of his even critical interpreter. In its articulation, the text refers back to the essay - just revised - presented at the Seminar on Spinoza: Power and Freedom organized for the activities of the Doctorate in Philosophical Anthopology and Fundaments of Sciences of the University of Urbino (4th March 2004). The content, purposely in its original colloquial version, is halfway between my Afterword to Strauss (2003) - to which I have turned to for various aspects - and further detailed investigations to be arranged in a more thorough format.

Paolo Taroni, Bradley e la critica all'esistenza del tempo
The present article analyses Bradley's critic of the time existence. Starting from a rigorous logical examination, the British idealist demonstrates that every relationship is contradictory, inconsistent. Therefore the time is contradictory, too and it is appearance, because it is constituted by elements mutually connected in an after and a before. The only Reality is the Absolute. In the Absolute, everything is contained in a Unity, that may be felt through an immediate experience, a feeling, that is an absolute intuition. In the Absolute there is no time. The Absolute is non-temporal, but it includes time, as one of its aspects; in the Total, time is not a singular element and does not have specific characteristics. In the Absolute, the typical time's elements - the unity of after and before, and the direction to the stream - do not exist, and are only appearances of the human mind. In the Absolute only the Eternal exists

Lyuba Castelli, Gli echi di un dissenso democratico
The present article analyzes some themes of the Dutch philosopher B. Spinoza's political theories, paying also attention to the themes faced in the Ethics, in order to emphasize some aspects of the sixteenth century philosopher's political science. The dynamics of the union pact, the choice for a democratic government form, the theory of the consent (treated mainly in the Political Treatise) are all indispensable and constitutive elements for the formation of a country, in which the free circulation of ideas and the possibility to dissent conduct towards a horizon as much rational as possible, thus towards freedom. According to these reflections, it has been attempted to individuate a sort of theoretical continuity (not parallelism) between the Spinoza's political theory and the Karl Marx's philosophy: the relationship between democracy and multitudo permits to formulate some hypothesis on how the Marxian philosophy has ideally inherited something from the theoretical nucleus of Spinoza's politi-cal thought.

Italo Cubeddu, La Metafisica di Aristotele. Sommario ragionato di un libro non scritto
This reproduces the concluding paragraph of a more extensive study which endeavours to trace in the text of Metaphisics as passed down to us by its ancient editors a pathway which leads from the reworking of the Platonic diairesis undertaken in the Topics (in particular in chapters 5-6 of Book 6, on the topoi of genera and of diaphorai), further developed in the Posterior Analytics (see chapter 4 Book 1, on the meaning of the terms of every one, in itself, universally), down to the conclusion of chapter 12 of Metaphysics Zeta, which closes researches about substance with the account of which is a definition.

Giulia Montemezzo, Polemica antireligiosa, libertinismo e dissimulazione nel Candelaio di Giordano Bruno
The present study intends to offer a contribution to the interpretation of Giordano Bruno’s ‘libertinage’, focused in particular on the stage of Bruno’s only comedy: Candelaio, which is now analysed. Set between the flight from Naples and the first french experience (1576-83), the Candelaio either shows a peculiar moment of Bruno’s philosophical thought and marks a basical step to understand Bruno’s conception of faith, catholic religion, superstition, and Churche’s hierarchy. From a themathic point of view, the main attention is thus focused on the double level of Bruno’s writing, language and style in relation with the Scriptures and the debate between Erasmus and Luther, on the sacred liturgy’s ‘dismantlement’ and parody, and on the paradoxical turn over applyied to basic concept in civil society such as honour and chastity. Bruno’s thought shows thus, since the very first experiences, a broad evidence of a close relationship between the «Nolano» and the italian «Averroismo» and even his deep knowledge of a couple of very different, but certainly important ‘restless’ intellectuals: Ortensio Lando and Torquato Tasso.

Fabio Frosini, La "filosofia della praxis" nei Quaderni del carcere di Antonio Gramsci
"Philosophy of praxis" is the concept used since 1932 by Antonio Gramsci in his Prison Notebooks (notebooks 10 and 11) as a substitute of "Marxism". It is quite possible that one among the reasons for this conceptual choice was the circumspection of the prisoner Gramsci vis-à-vis the censor. However, as this article tries to show, all the conditions which make that substitution possible are already present in the period 1929-1932. Throughout that period, Gramsci elaborates an original reconsideration of Marxism, culminating in a proposal that he expressly announces as "philosophy of praxis". The concept draws explicitly on the work of Antonio Labriola and is defined, in accordance with Labriola, as denoting the core of Marxist philosophy. Specifically, Gramsci argues that Marxist philosophy is born out of historical materialism, rather than other philosophical positions such as Idealism and Materialism. This article describes the genesis of the philosophy of praxis by means of a close reading of the Notebooks. Contrary to received wisdom, the article argues that this concept - albeit in a sketchy and rather vague way - is already present in 1930, with the subsequent two years being dedicated to defining it in every detail.

Valentino Bellucci, Descrizioni fenomenologiche nei Cahiers di Paul Valéry
It is a common point of wiew that the investigation Paul Valéry leads in his Cahiers show a theoretical dimension centred on phenomenological aspects. What shall be do now is to confront with much more details some phenomenological descriptions exposed into the Cahiers with Husserl's investigations on time and Merleau-Ponty's searches on perception. Reguarding the comparison Valéry-Husserl is to point out the notable similarites on considering the concept of 'present' like a complex form and also that, this was treated using same language. Reguarding the comparison Valéry-Merleau-Ponty we have not only a common interset on perception, but also the same examples on clarefing same phenomenological aspects on sensation. At last is underline the common interest of Valéry and Merleau-Ponty on painting and the fact that it assumes an important philosopical value for them.

Benedetta Zavatta, l gioco del mondo e il mondo del gioco in F. Nietzsche
The theme of play is found in all Nietzsche's productions, from the ones belonging to his youth to the latest works and its progressive evolution shows a process of modification which also takes place in Nietzsche's thought: from the artist's metaphysics to the free spirit's scepticism, the doctrine of the eternal recurrence of the same and the will to power. In this work we have tried to demonstrate how the evolution of the metaphor of the world as play is strongly indicative of Nietzsche's research for a radically extra-metaphysical philosophy. So the sight of the artist, who is looking the play of the world, becomes the 'play without player' of the will to power in which both God and the subject disappear. Thus nihilism is overcome by recognizing and affirming the play-character of existence.