Responsabile sezione Venanzio Raspa
Giuseppe Bomprezzi, Pythagoras’ Theorem and Homer’s Ulysses. 7/10/2011©
When people say that literature is similar to mathematics, they very often mean that both deal with ideal entities. But if something is ideal, it is not contingent. Therefore, it is hard to state that literature and literary objects are ideal entities, since it is very plausible that a sonnet, just to make an example, is created using some words, as well as a character or a fictional scenario. Indeed, whatever is created is also contingent. Now, if literature has nothing to do with the realm of platonic things, then we have to weigh up two possibilities: 1) literature and mathematics are completely different spheres, or 2) it is not necessary true that mathematics studies and handles ideal entities, and so it makes sense again to say that a literary object (for instance, Homer‟s Ulysses) and a mathematical one (for instance, Pythagoras‟ theorem) are similar. As it is anticipated by the title above, I will move on along this second path.
Luisa De Paula, Tra mondo proprio e mondo comune Pòiesis e intenzionalità nel Discorso Sacro di Eraclito, 25/10/2009 ©
For Heraclitus there is no reality without dreaming. His over quoted saying that “only waking people share a world in common” has led to many equivocations. Since the western philosophy of dreaming and imagination begins here, it should be reconsidered after an accurate historical and philological contextualization and within Heraclitus‟ general conception of the oneiric world. This article is an attempt to provide a deeper insight to the author‟s thinking on imagery.
It recapitulates the salient points of a more extended study on the “obscure” philosopher‟s anthropological background, its poietic imagery and its oneiric practices.
The recurrent antithesis between the waking and sleeping states is analyzed at various levels of significance as a constitutive metaphor of the dialectic. After making the distinction between the philosophy of dream and the phenomenology of sleep, the intricate relationships between sleep, dream and death are taken under consideration. The dimension of intentionality and its role in Heraclitus‟ perception of reality is then explored by connecting the oneiric-related passages with other key fragments. The lógos of the philosopher is hence viewed as a poietic act and the instrument for nourishing the policy of the imagery.
The extended study in which this article is grounded explores the connections of Heraclitus‟ thought with the trend of the “physiologists” (phisiológoi) and the mystery cults which characterize Ephesus‟ naturalistic piety. Hercalitus‟ early conceptualization of the soul (ψυχή) is confronted with dionysism, orphism, and pythagorism; his oracular style re-assessed with respect to the ongoing passage from an oral to a written culture, and the parallel competition among different models of thinking. The study also provides arguments that Heraclitus‟ Sacred Discourse might contain hints to the practice of oneiric incubation.
Antonino Firenze, Il
primato ontologico della percezione in Merleau-Ponty. Prospettiva storico-filosofica
e problemi aperti , 23/2/2008 ©
The aim of this article is to circumscribe, from an historical point of view, the theoretical contribution of the Merleau-Ponty’s perception’s philosophy to the philosophical relation between knowledge and perception. Therefore, to highlight the most original facet of his perception’s philosophy compared with the traditional theories about this problem, our reflection is divided in two parts. In the first part, we rough out the difference existing between the ancient and modern idea of knowledge and perception. To be more precise, we describe the transition of the ancient idea of perception as natural and objective knowledge’s instrument, to the modern idea of perception as subject’s mental operation. In the second part, we attempt to follow the footsteps of Merleau-Ponty’s perception’s philosophy to clarify the philosophical meaning of perception on the base of the perceptive experience as such.
Sara Mandozzi, Maurice Blanchot, Scrittura,
alterità e morte, Sara Mandozzi 24/1/07
The aim of this article is to analyze the philosophical-literary production of Maurice Blanchot and his development through a careful analysis of his works. In particular I would like to point out the themes of “writing”, of “alterity” and of “death”. Writing in Blanchot is the eternal impersonal, the always being, the categorical imperative, and the writer can not get out from it. The writer can not stop this research as he is inhabited by the word’s demon, who force him to roam around the uninhabited desert of the word. For this reason the act of writing is strictly connected to the death: it is the “step beyond” who lead the author in “the night of authentic literary creation”. Another fundamental step in Blanchot’s productions is the issue of Alterity. The “Other” is the foreign being, a tangible and perceptible being who, at the same time can not be joined. The meeting that everyone wants to reach with the “Alterity” is tantamount to crash in front of the impossibility of encounter it. Another fundamental theme in Blanchot is Death. Man tries to make death possible and actual as erroneously he would like to place it in the time giving it a meaning; yet in this way he forget that on dying, (as Dying can’t be set in the time, but it happens in the impersonal ever). This is the deep meaning of writing: we can not postpone further the death as we have to accept it in its high and extreme easiness.
Antonino Firenze, Il chiasma e la nuova ontologia.
Riflessioni sull’intreccio di corpo e pensiero nella filosofia di Merleau-Ponty,
The aim of this article is the interrogation of the ontological relation between body and thinking in the Merleau-Ponty’s work. The criticism of the modern identification of being with the reflective subject (idealism) or with the positive object (realism), that just characterizes his first works such as La structure du comportement (1942) and Phénoménologie de la perception (1945), during the half of the 1950’s opens out onto a project of a “new ontology”. In this article, I try to show the original movement of thinking by which the French philosopher thematizes the fundamental concept of chiasm like an ontological connection between body and thinking, at the same time that he shows the chiasm like the main example of a new conceptual dimension oriented toward a deconstruction of the subject’s transcendental status and object’s positive reality.
Benedetta Zavatta, Per un’estetica della
potenza, Emerson e Nietzsche sul grande stile,
Traces of reading of Emerson are scattered all through Nietzsche’s published and posthumous works over a very wide time span, from his school years up to those just before the onset of his madness. One of the main themes shared by both authors is the building of character, an ethical as well as an aesthetical duty. By bringing it off, human beings will be able to rule their own naturalness, not in order to suppress it but rather to enable its full expression. So beauty reaches its top expression in the man, who is able to increase his natural power through the artistic transfiguration of hard facts. Once the art to benefit from necessity is learned, individual will no longer have to passively be subject to the tyranny of fate, but he will be able to take active part in its almightiness.
Daniele Guastini, Aristotele
e la metafora: ovvero un elogio dell'approssimazione, 9/9/2005
Through an analysis of the main passages of Poetics and Rethoric about metaphor, and through their comparison with the works of Organon, as well as with the Book Gamma of Metaphysics, metaphor is introduced into the most important path of Aristotelic philosophy.
This path, as it is well-known, is marked by the idea that to on legetai pollachos, “the being is said in many ways”, and therefore, using Ricoeur's famous words of The Rule of Metaphor, «the great undertaking to say the being» requires linguistic means adapted to the task.
Among these tasks, metaphor is of primary importance. In fact, according to Aristotle, it is an essential means of expression of the ontological plurality which forms the world of human things, because of its ability – precise and approximate at the same time – to discover the likeness and the connections between things which, on the surface, appear very different.
Vincenzo Fano, Stevenson, Aristotele e la
poetica delle circostanze, 9/9/2005
Five different possible interpretations of Stevenson's Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde are presented: the Faustian, the Freudian, the Darwinian, the Biblical and the chemical one. A more accurate analysis shows that none of them exhausts the meaning of the novel. Then, some theoretical considerations based on Stevenson's poetical essays are discussed. The latter provide useful concepts related to Aristotle's Poetics.
Gabriele Tomasi, Sul simbolo e la realtà
oggettiva delle idee. Riflessioni a partire dal § 59
della Critica della capacità di giudizio, 11/6/2005
This short essay suggests an interpretation of the notion of symbol, as we find it in § 59 of the Critique of Judgment , in the light of the semantic problem of the reality of ideas. Stressing the rethorical origin of the notion of symbolic hypotyposis it reviews, also by reference to the anthropology lessons texts, Kant's convinction that the symbolic has an intuitive, sensible, charachter, and it shows that, for this reason, what Kant calls symbol can work as substitute of the intuition which assures the meaning of a concept. Moreover the metaphorical nature of the Kantian symbol is discussed, and what gives its title to § 59, which is beauty as symbol of morality, is interpreted. The claimed thesis is that the sensible which constitues symbol is here, properly, a feeling: the aesthetic pleasure. Such a feeling doesn't have representational value, but nevertheless has an intentional nature, that is it notifies a mood – the free play of imagination and intellect – which for its character, and for the charachters of the judgment through which it expresses itself, can hold as the sensible rendering of freedom.
Arte e verità nelle poetiche dell'antichità